We are all trying to reduce energy costs and CO2 emissions by choosing modern alternatives to incandescent lamps. Here are some lighting charts to help you select the best lamp for your situation. Since the decline of incandescent lamps there have been many alternatives made available based on fluorescent tubes bent in many ways to condense a long tube into a confined space.
I had my first Philips SL prismatic Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) lamps soon after they came on the general market back in the 1980’s. I only recently sent my last one to recycling after deciding that even my shed could do better than have one of those long time warm-up devices.
In the early days of low energy lighting there was nothing better than the good old fluorescent tube, usually confined to kitchens and garages in the British house. I still had two twin fluorescents in my kitchen until 2015. If you want the room lit without shadows that’s the way to do it. After much searching in 2003 I found some streamlined fluorescents fit for the modern era to replace my old fluorescent ‘chunky boxes’. Unfortunately they went off the market and I struggled to find a decent looking replacement that didn’t cost a fortune. There were some problems with the ones I used. They had a self destruct mechanism built-in. The plastic fixings for holding the wires in place on the frame all deteriorated under the ultraviolet light given out by fluorescent tubes. I replaced them with zip ties but they suffered from the same problem.
To get back to the point of this article, which is to advise on the brightness of replacement lamps, I have chosen to publish a chart by which seems to relate to the UK/European market and another by which relates to the American market and appears to suggest their lamps emit more light than European lamps, e.g. UK/European 100W ≅ 1300 lumens, American 100W ≅ 1600 lumens (see A USA Lighting Chart). Continue reading “Lighting Charts – Which Lamp Do I Need?”
Morse Code was devised by Samuel Finley Breese Morse, an American artist and inventor, in the 19th century. It is made up of a series of dots and dashes when written down.
Speaking Morse Code
When spoken a dot is pronounced “dit” if it is the final element of a character, else it’s pronounced “di”, and a dash is pronounced “dah”. e.g. “C” [ — · — ·] = “dah-di-dah-dit”.
Transmitting Morse Code
1. By Interupting A Light Beam
If Morse Code is transmitted as a beam of light then the transmitting light often has a shutter in front of it which is opened by means of a lever to let the light out. Historically this is because the persistence of electric lights is too long if they are turned on and off by electrical means.
2. By Using An Electrical or Radio Signal
If Morse Code is transmitted as a radio signal, or current down a wire, then the signal is controlled by a special electrical switch known as a Morse Key or Telegraph Key. In its simple form this is an ON/OFF switch, but in its more complex form it is a changeover switch. With the changeover switch in one position it sends a series of dots and in the other position it sends a series of dashes. The timing of these is electronically generated. The operator leaves the key in the central position (the default) when not transmitting and moves the key from side to side to send the necessary dots and dashes while listening to his output on headphones. By this means the operator can send a fast signal with fewer movements of the wrist.
When transmitted as a radio carrier wave, light or electrical current a dot is a short burst of radio carrier wave, light or current, and a dash as a burst of radio carrier wave, light or current with a period three times as long as a dot.
The period between a dot/dash and the next dot/dash within the same character is equal to the period of a dot.
The period between characters is equal to the period of a dash.
The period between words is the same as seven dots.